A new way to test the effect of HIV on the brain
HIV does not invade nerve cells (neurons) directly, but endangers their work by infecting cells called glia which help and protect neurons. HIV also infects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) and induces symptoms such as: anxiety and forgetfulness.
AIDS reflects the final stage of HIV infection. A person infected with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS when he or she has a extremely small number of CD4 + T cells and one or more "opportunistic" infections, such as certain forms of pneumonia or tuberculosis, which do not usually affect people with stable immune systems.
Even when HIV is well controlled with ART, many infected individuals still develop HIV-associated neurological and cognitive difficulties. This is because many drugs used to combat HIV cannot cross the protective layer called the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, and even those that can may not completely control the virus in the brain. Antiretroviral drugs can also become toxic after long-term use and cause neurological side effects.
These infections may be treated with corticosteroids or with procedures such as plasma exchange, traditionally known as plasmapheresis, which remove the blood from the toxic compounds that induce inflammation.
Many therapies may include exercise and occupational therapy, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to reduce HIV-related cancerous brain tumors, antifungal or antimalarial medications to combat such disorder-related bacterial infections, and penicillin to cure neurosyphilis.
Several researchers are studying complex AIDS dementia and cognitive HIV disease to understand more how the lack of neurons contributes to these diseases. Researchers are also researching the inflammatory mechanisms associated with HIV-1 dementia, and how early proteins produced by HIV-1 alter cellular signaling processes in a manner that results in the loss of cognitive function in infected individuals.
Many researchers are trying to find HIV mutated strains that may help improve vaccines that could have the ability to prevent HIV-1 brain infection and HIV-associated HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.
This review tells about the future scope of the new invention towards the field of HIV /AIDS and their medicinal treatment. People who are interested can send their article towards our journal for publication through this link https://www.scholarscentral.org/submissions/hiv-aids-research.html.