Current Scenario of HIV/AIDS
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic condition caused by the HIV virus. HIV infection is a very real threat and can simply be considered a plague on mankind. HIV-1 was identified as the causative organism soon after the first official recognition of HIV patients in the USA. HIV-2 was reported first in Africa in 1985 and is markedly different from HIV-1.
Since its discovery, the global prevalence of HIV has grown and has now spread around the globe, following advancements in antiretroviral therapies (ART). The mortality and morbidity levels associated with HIV infections in developed countries remain high due in large part to food deprivation and malnutrition.
The principal site of the attack is the immune system, in particular the CD4 T-lymphocytes (CD4 cells). The virus, once infected, slowly and quietly overwhelms the protective mechanisms of the body, resulting in opportunistic infections and cancers which are otherwise uncommon. Activated and segregated CD4 cells play a crucial function in cell-mediated and humoral immune system development.
HIV infection has a very complex pathogenesis and varies substantially in different patients. Therefore, it can easily be considered as a very host-specific infection. The specificity of pathogenesis often complicates treatment options that are currently available for HIV infection. Current HIV management recommendations prescribe therapy with ART for all cases, regardless of the CD4 cell count, to boost and extend disease progression to AIDS. Adherence to medication is of vital significance for ensuring the maximum effectiveness of medication and also for avoiding opioid resistance occurrence.
This review tells about the future scope of the new invention towards the field of HIV /AIDS and their medicinal treatment. People who are interested can send their article towards our journal for publication through this link https://www.scholarscentral.org/submissions/hiv-aids-research.html.