Fluoride causes dental enamel defects


Fluoride is a chemical that occurs naturally and helps avoid cavities by encouraging mineralization and making tooth enamel more acid resistant. For its role in reducing tooth decay, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC) called water fluoridation one of the 20th century's 10 great public health achievements.

Dental fluorosis occurs when children between birth and around nine years of age are exposed to elevated levels of fluoride during this crucial period where their teeth develop, which can potentially increase their risk of decay in the tooth. A study revealed that about 25 percent of the surveyed U.S. population (ages 6 to 49) had a degree of dental fluorosis.

Scientists found that exposing enamel cells from mice to fluoride resulted in calcium dysregulation, with reductions in calcium entering and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, a multifunctional structure inside cells, including calcium accumulation.

The researchers studied the results of exposing tooth enamel cells to fluoride to explore the molecular bases of dental fluorosis — levels on the upper edge of what you can see in drinking water and compatible with what is seen in places where people typically have fluorosis. Researchers then evaluated the effect of fluoride on the signalling of calcium within the cells, considering the role of calcium in the mineralization of tooth enamel.

Although low fluoride levels tend to reinforce and preserve the enamel of the tooth, too much fluoride may induce dental fluorosis — teeth discoloration, generally of invisible white dots, curves, or mottled enamel and weak mineralization. Fluoride affected the work of mitochondria (the power generators of the cells), thereby altering energy supply.

Finally, RNA sequencing — which checks cell genomes — showed that there was an increased expression of genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum stress response proteins in enamel cells exposed to fluoride, and those encoding mitochondrial proteins that are involved in generating the energy of the cell.

JDRP is an open access peer review journal who publishes different types of articles related to the field of dental or tooth problems, its cure, diagnosis and treatment. People who are interested in submitting their article can go through the URL link https://www.lexispublisher.com/online-submission.html