Japanese encephalitis vaccine
Japanese encephalitis vaccine
Journal of Health and Medical Research is a peer review open access journal in field of health and medicine. Here we discuss about Japanese encephalitis.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). While most infections result in little or no symptoms, occasional inflammation of the brain occurs. In these cases, symptoms may include headache, vomiting, fever, confusion and seizures. This occurs about 5 to 15 days after infection.
JEV is generally spread by mosquitoes, specifically those of the Culex type. Pigs and wild birds serve as a reservoir for the virus. The disease mostly occurs outside of cities. Diagnosis is based on blood or cerebrospinal fluid testing.
Prevention is generally with the Japanese encephalitis vaccine, which is both safe and effective. Other measures include avoiding mosquito bites. Once infected, there is no specific treatment, with care being supportive. This is generally carried out in hospital. Permanent problems occur in up to half of people who recover from JE.
The disease occurs in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. About 3 billion people live in areas where the disease occurs. About 68,000 symptomatic cases occur a year, with about 17,000 deaths. Often, cases occur in outbreaks. The disease was first described in 1871.
Japanese encephalitis vaccine is a vaccine that protects against Japanese encephalitis. The vaccines are more than 90% effective. The duration of protection with the vaccine is not clear but its effectiveness appears to decrease over time. Doses are given either by injection into a muscle or just under the skin.
It is recommended as part of routine immunizations in countries where the disease is a problem. One or two doses are given depending on the version of the vaccine. Extra doses are not typically needed in areas where the disease is common and those with HIV/AIDS or those who are pregnant an inactivated vaccine should be used. Immunization of travellers who plan to spend time outdoors in areas where the disease is common is recommended.
The vaccines are relatively safe. Pain and redness may occur at the site of injection. As of 2015, 15 different vaccines are available some are based on recombinant DNA techniques, others weakened virus, and others inactivated virus.
The Japanese encephalitis vaccines first became available in the 1930s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. In the United States it costs between 100 and 200 USD for a course of immunizations.
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