Neurological disorders in HIV


Neurological diseases (NDs) are caused by three primary pathways in individuals diagnosed with HIV, overt HIV transmission, opportunistic processes arising from the lack of cell-mediated immunity, and inflammation or autoimmunity. While they occur during all stages of HIV infection, they occur most frequently in advanced HIV disease where their overall pattern and frequency at clinical presentation reflects mostly the level of immunity of the individual and previous exposure to the environment. Human immunodeficiency virus is the virus which causes the syndrome of acquired immune deficiency. HIV affects the immune system by killing unique white blood cells known as CD4-positive (CD4 +) T cells which are essential to ward off infection. The subsequent lack of such cells leaves individuals diagnosed with HIV vulnerable to potential risks of other illnesses and diseases. HIV does not invade nerve cells (neurons) directly, but endangers their work by infecting cells called glia which help and protect neurons. HIV also causes inflammation that can damage the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) and causes symptoms such as confusion and forgetfulness, lack of concentration, changes in behaviour, headaches, mood disorders. Damage to the peripheral nerves can cause progressive weakness and loss of sensation in the arms and legs. Research has shown that HIV infection can cause shrinking of brain structures involved in learning and information processing. Lymphomas of the central nervous system (CNS) are cancerous tumors that either originate in the brain or arise from a cancer that has spread from another place in the body. CNS lymphomas are almost often infected with the herpes family Epstein-Barr virus (a common human virus). Infections with the herpes virus are often reported in people with AIDS. The herpes zoster virus which causes varicose veins and shingles can infect the brain and cause encephalitis and myelitis (spinal cord inflammation). This usually causes shingles, which is blister explosion and extreme pain in a skin area supplied by an affected nerve. This review tells about the future scope of the new invention towards the field of HIV /AIDS and their medicinal treatment. People who are interested can send their article towards our journal for publication through this link